Science - Curriculum Overview

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Learning Checklist and Contents

Living With the Physical Environment

Book Number

Page Number

The Challenge of Natural Hazards

 

 

Natural Hazards

 

 

Definition of a natural hazard

 

 

Types of natural hazard

 

 

Factors affecting hazard risk

 

 

Tectonic Hazards

 

 

Plate tectonics theory

 

 

Global distribution of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and their relationship to plate margins

 

 

Physical processes taking place at different types of plate margin (constructive, destructive and conservative) that lead to earthquakes and volcanic activity.

   

Primary and secondary effects of a tectonic hazard

 

 

Immediate and long term responses to a tectonic hazard

 

 

Names examples showing how the effects and responses to an earthquake vary between areas of contrasting levels of wealth.

   

Reasons why people continue to live in areas at risk form tectonic hazards

 

 

How monitoring, prediction, protection and planning can reduce the risks from a tectonic hazard.

 

 

Weather Hazards

 

 

General atmospheric circulation model: Pressure belts and surface winds.

 

 

Global distribution of tropical storms (Hurricanes, cyclones and typhoons)

 

 

Relationship between tropical storms and general atmospheric circulation.

 

 

Causes of tropical storms and the sequence of their formation and development.

 

 

The structure and features of a tropical storm

 

 

How climate change might affect the distribution, frequency and intensity of tropical storms.

 

 

Overview of the types of weather hazard experienced in the UK

 

 

An example of a recent weather event in the UK to illustrate causes, impacts and management.

 

 

Evidence that weather is becoming more extreme in the UK.

 

 

Climate Change

 

 

Evidence for climate change

 

 

Possible natural and human causes of climate change. 

 

 

Impacts of climate change on people and the environment

 

 

Managing climate change.

 

 

Learning Checklist and Contents

Living With the Physical Environment (cont.)

Book Number

Page Number

The Living World

 

 

Ecosystems

 

 

Trophic levels

 

 

Food chains and webs

 

 

Nutrient cycling

 

 

The balance between components and the impact on the ecosystem of changing one component

 

 

Distribution and characteristics of large scale natural global ecosystems

 

 

Tropical Rainforests

 

 

Physical characteristics of a tropical rainforest

 

 

Interdependence of climate, water, soils plants animals and people

 

 

How plants and animals adapt to the physical conditions

 

 

Issues related to biodiversity

 

 

Changing rates of deforestation

 

 

Case study to illustrate causes and impacts of deforestation.

 

 

Value of tropical rainforests to people and the environment.

 

 

Strategies to manage the forest sustainably

 

 

Hot Deserts

 

 

Physical characteristics of a hot desert

 

 

Interdependence of climate, water, soils plants animals and people

 

 

How plants and animals adapt to the physical conditions

 

 

Issues related to biodiversity

 

 

A case study of a hot desert to illustrate development opportunities and the challenges of developing hot desert environments.

 

 

Causes of desertification.

 

 

Strategies used to reduce the risk of desertification.

 

 

 

 

 

Learning Checklist and Contents

Living With the Physical Environment (cont.)

Book Number

Page Number

Physical Landscapes in the UK

 

 

UK Physical landscapes

 

 

Location of major upland/lowland areas and river systems

 

 

Coastal Landscapes in the UK.

 

 

Wave types and characteristics

 

 

Coastal processes (Erosion, transportation, deposition)

 

 

How geological structure and rock type influence coastal forms.

 

 

Distinctive landforms created by erosion (headlands and bays, cliffs, wave cut platforms, caves, arches, and stacks).

 

 

Distinctive landforms created by deposition (beaches, sand dunes, spits and bars)

 

 

Example of a coastline in the UK to identify its major landforms of erosion and deposition.

 

 

Costs and  of coastal management strategies

 

 

An example of a coastal management scheme in the UK to show reasons for, what the scheme is and the resulting effects/conflicts.

 

 

River Landscapes in the UK.

 

 

The long and profile and changing cross profile of a river and its valley.

 

 

Fluvial processes - erosion, transportation and deposition

 

 

Distinctive landforms created by erosion (interlocking spurs, waterfalls and gorges)

 

 

Distinctive landforms created by deposition (Levees, flood plains and estuaries)

 

 

An example of a river valley in the UK to identify its major landforms or erosion and deposition.

 

 

Physical and human factors affecting flood risk

 

 

The use of hydrographs to show the relationships between precipitation and discharge.

 

 

Costs and benefits of hard and soft engineering.

 

 

An example of a flood management scheme in the UK to show reasons for the scheme, the strategy and the social, economic and environmental issues.

 

 

Learning Checklist and Contents

Challenges in the Human Environment

Book Number

Page Number

Urban issues and challenges

 

 

The global pattern of Urban change

 

 

Urban trends in different parts of the world including HICs and LICs

 

 

Factors affecting the rate of urbanisation

 

 

The emergence of megacities

 

 

A case study of a major city in an LIC or NEE to illustrate its location and importance, causes of growth, opportunities and challenges.

 

 

An example of how urban planning is improving the quality of life for the Urban poor.

 

 

Distribution of population and the major cities in the UK.

 

 

A case study of a major city in the UK to illustrate the location and importance of the city in the UK and the world, impacts of migration, opportunities and challenges.

 

 

An example of a regeneration project.

 

 

Features of sustainable living

 

 

How urban transport strategies are used to reduce traffic congestion.

 

 

The Changing Economic World

 

 

Different ways of classifying parts of the world according to economic development and quality of life.

 

 

Different economic and social measures of development.

 

 

Limitations of economic and social measures

 

 

Link between stages of DTM and the levels of development.

 

 

Causes of uneven development

 

 

Consequences of uneven development.

 

 

Strategies used to reduce the development gap

 

 

An example of how growth of tourism in an LIC or NEE helps to reduce the development gap.

 

 

A case study of an LIC or NEE to illustrate: location and importance, political, social, environmental and cultural context, changing industrial structure, role of TNCs, political and trading relationships, aid, impacts of development on quality of life and environment. 

 

 

Economic futures in the UK

 

 

The Challenge Of Resource Management

 

 

Resource management

 

 

The significance of food, water and energy to economic and social well-being.

 

 

Global inequalities in the supply and consumption of resources

 

 

Overview of resources in relation to the UK: Food

 

 

Overview of resources in relation to the UK: Water

 

 

Overview of resources in relation to the UK: Energy

 

 

Water

 

 

Areas of surplus (security) and deficit (insecurity)

 

 

Reasons for increasing water consumption

 

 

Factors affecting water availability.

 

 

Impacts of water insecurity

 

 

Strategies to increase water supply

 

 

Moving towards a sustainable resource future

 

 

Learning Checklist and Contents

Geographical Applications

Book Number

Page Number

Issue Evaluation

 

 

Interpretation of sources

 

 

Analysis of a geographical issue

 

 

Justification of a decision

 

 

Evaluation of an issue

 

 

Fieldwork

 

 

Human Geography field work

 

 

Physical Geography fieldwork (including a human element).

 

 

Choosing a suitable question/hypothesis

 

 

Risk assessing fieldwork

 

 

Primary and secondary data collection techniques

 

 

Sampling methods

 

 

Description and justification for the method choices.

 

 

Use of a range of data presentation techniques

 

 

Selection and use of appropriate presentation techniques

 

 

Adaption of presentation techniques

 

 

Description, analysis and explanation of the results of fieldwork data

 

 

Linking data sets

 

 

Statistical techniques

 

 

Identifying anomalies

 

 

Making conclusions

 

 

Evaluation of data collection, reliable conclusions and improvements.

 

 

Geographical Skills

   

Cartographic Skills

 

 

Atlas Maps

 

 

Latitude and longitude

 

 

Patterns of distribution of human and physical features

 

 

Use a range of maps to analyse patterns.

 

 

Ordnance Survey Maps

 

 

Use of maps at a range of scales.

 

 

4 and 6 figure grid references

 

 

Scale, distance and direction

 

 

Gradient, contour and spot height

 

 

Use of a key

 

 

Relate cross sections to relief features

 

 

Coastal, fluvial and glacial landscapes.

 

 

Infer human activity

 

 

Maps in Association with Photographs

 

 

Compare maps

 

 

Draw, label, understand and interpret sketch maps.

 

 

Geographical Skills (cont.)

Book Number

Page Number

Ground, aerial and satellite photos

 

 

Describe human and physical features from photographs

 

 

Draw sketches from photographs

 

 

Label and annotate diagrams, maps, graphs, sketches and photographs.

 

 

Graphical Skills

 

 

Line Charts

 

 

Bar Charts

 

 

Pie Charts

 

 

Pictograms

 

 

Histograms with equal class intervals

 

 

Divided bar charts

 

 

Scatter graphs

 

 

Population Pyramids

 

 

Choropleth maps

 

 

Isoline Maps

 

 

Dot maps

 

 

Dispersion graphs

 

 

Desire lines

 

 

Proportional symbols.

 

 

Flow lines

 

 

Use of gradient, contour and values on isoline maps

 

 

Accurate and appropriate creation of graphs

 

 

Interpret and extract information. (Interpolate, extrapolate)

 

 

Numerical Skills

 

 

Area

 

 

Scales

 

 

Proportion, ratio, magnitude, frequency

 

 

Statistical Skills

 

 

Central tendency

 

 

Spread and cumulative frequency

 

 

Median, mode, mean, range, quartiles and interquartile range, modal class.

 

 

% increase and decrease

 

 

Percentiles

 

 

Relationships in bivariate data: trend lines through scatter plots, lines of best fit, interpolate and extrapolate trends.

 

 

Identify weaknesses in selective statistical presentation of data.